Depending on the results of the medical history and physical examination, a doctor may recommend a variety of tests help rule out structural or organic causes. Tests might include:

  • Blood tests to identify anemia, a high white cell count, or a metabolic disorder (e.g., hypothyroidism, if indicated).
  • Referral to a specialist for barium enema studies (radiologist) or endoscopy – sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy – (physician).
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